1 “Tortelli and Ravioli,” The Pasta Project, March 25, 2019, https://www.the-pasta-project.com/tortelli-and-ravioli/.
2 Alan Davidson, The Oxford Companion to Food, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999).
3 Paul Kindstedt Cheese and Culture: A History of Cheese and its Place in Western Civilization, (Vermont: Chelsea Green Publishing, 2012).
4 Don R. Brothwell, Patricia Brothwell, Food in Antiquity: A Survey of the Diet of Early Peoples (Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press: 1998).
5 Arnau Ribera, Rob van Treuren, Chris Kik, et al, “On the origin and dispersal of cultivated spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)”, Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 68, 1023–1032 (2021).
6 James Hancock, “The Early History of Clove, Nutmeg and Mace”, World History Encyclopedia, 13 October 2021, https://www.worldhistory.org/article/1849/the-early-history-of-clove-nutmeg–mace/
7 James Hancock, “Pepper”, World History Encyclopedia, 2 September 2021, https://www.worldhistory.org/Pepper/
8 Tijana Radeska, “Before the Columbian Exchange There Were No Tomatoes in Italy and No Paprika in Hungary,” The Vintage News, September 16, 2019, https://www.thevintagenews.com/2016/08/30/priority-columbian-exchange-no-tomatoes-italy-no-paprika-hungary/.
9 R. A. T. Nilusha, J. M. J. K Jayasinghe, O. D. A. N. Perera, et al, “Development of Pasta Products with Nonconventional Ingredients and Their Effect on Selected Quality Characteristics: A Brief Overview”, International Journal of Food Science, vol. 2019 (2019).
10 Stephanie Stiavetti, Garrett McCord, and Matt Armendariz, Melt: the Art of Macaroni and Cheese (New York: Little, Brown and Company, 2013).
11 Corby Kummer, “Pasta,” The Atlantic (Atlantic Media Company, July 1, 1986), https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1986/07/pasta/306226/.
12 13 14 “History Of Ravioli: THE NIBBLE Blog – Adventures In The World Of Fine Food,” History Of Ravioli | THE NIBBLE Blog – Adventures In The World Of Fine Food, October 2007, https://www.thenibble.com/reviews/main/pastas/history-of-pasta.asp.
15 “Who Invented the Noodle, Italy or China?,” Food, July 28, 2016, https://www.sbs.com.au/food/article/2016/07/29/who-invented-noodle-italy-or-china.
16 Alan Davidson, The Oxford Companion to Food (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999).
17 Corby Kummer, “Pasta,” The Atlantic (Atlantic Media Company, July 1, 1986), https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1986/07/pasta/306226/.
18 Maguelonne Toussaint-Samat, A History of Food (Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009).
19 20 Corby Kummer, “Pasta,” The Atlantic (Atlantic Media Company, July 1, 1986), https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1986/07/pasta/306226/.
21 “Pasta Is Not Originally from Italy,” Today I Found Out, November 28, 2012, https://www.todayifoundout.com/index.php/2011/06/pasta-is-not-originally-from-italy/.
22 Kantha Shelke, Pasta and Noodles – a Global History, (Reaktion Books, 2016).
23 “Pasta Is Not Originally from Italy,” Today I Found Out, November 28, 2012, https://www.todayifoundout.com/index.php/2011/06/pasta-is-not-originally-from-italy/.
24 Tori Avey, “Uncover The History of Pasta,” PBS (Public Broadcasting Service, July 26, 2012), https://www.pbs.org/food/the-history-kitchen/uncover-the-history-of-pasta/.
25 Jennie Cohen, “Marco Polo Went to China After All, Study Suggests,” History.com (A&E Television Networks, April 17, 2012), https://www.history.com/news/marco-polo-went-to-china-after-all-study-suggests.
26 Stephanie Butler, “Delightful, Delicious Dumplings,” History.com (A&E Television Networks, March 28, 2014), https://www.history.com/news/delightful-delicious-dumplings.
27 Barbara Gallani, Dumplings: a Global History (London, UK: Reaktion Books, 2015).
28 Fr@, “Knödel (Canederli) Con Lo Speck in Brodo,” Sciroppo di mirtilli e piccoli equilibri, January 1, 1970.
29 30 31 Radim Kolarsky, “The Dumpling Page ,” The Dumpling Page, accessed January 23, 2020, http://www.kolarsky.com/family/cookbook/dumplings.htm.
32 Nationality Today, “National Ravioli Day – March 20, 2020,” National Ravioli Day – March 20, 2020, 2017, https://nationaltoday.com/national-ravioli-day/)
33 “Facts & History About Pierogi,” Enjoy Organic Pierogi From Polska Foods, May 2, 2014, http://www.polskafoods.com/polish-food/facts-history-about-pierogi)
34 Schoolchanger, “Kreplach: A Look Beneath the Dough,” foodhistoryreligion, September 3, 2018, https://foodhistoryreligion.wordpress.com/2015/10/08/kreplach-a-look-beneath-the-dough/.
35 Mark McWilliams, Wrapped & Stuffed Foods: Proceedings of the Oxford Symposium on Food and Cookery 2012 (Totnes, Devon, England: Prospect Books, 2013).
36 Tami Weiser, “The Delectable Dumpling Diaspora,” Moment Magazine – The Next 5,000 Years of Conversation Begin Here, August 14, 2019, https://momentmag.com/delectable-dumpling-diaspora/.
37 Aylin O Tan, ”Manti and Mantou: Dumplings Across the Silk Road from Central Asia to Turkey.” in Wrapped & Stuffed Foods: Proceedings of the Oxford Symposium on Food and Cookery 2012, ed. Mark McWilliam, (Totnes, Devon, England: Prospect Books, 2013), 144-165.
38 Barbara Gallani, Dumplings: a Global History (London, UK: Reaktion Books, 2015).
39 “Dumplings from Around the World”, BBC Bitesize, https://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/articles/ztgxm39
Gallani, Barbara. Dumplings: a Global History. London, UK: Reaktion Books, 2015.
In this book, Barbara Gallani, director of food safety and science at the UK Food and Drink Federation, provides an in-depth history of the development of dumplings around the globe. Specifically, she connects dumpling style cuisine across the AfroEurasian supercontinent, showing how techniques and ingredients are not a product of a single culture.
“History Of Ravioli: THE NIBBLE Blog – Adventures In The World Of Fine Food.” History Of Ravioli | THE NIBBLE Blog – Adventures In The World Of Fine Food, October 2007. https://www.thenibble.com/reviews/main/pastas/history-of-pasta.asp.
This article discusses the development of Ravioli from antiquity into the modern-day. It introduces the competing theories surrounding its origins as some scholars believe that European dumplings are a product of Asian influence while others support the dish is solely product Italy. Interestingly, this article presents the theory that the dumplings rise in Europe is a product of Marco Polo’s expedition to China.
Julia. “Pasta Is Not Originally from Italy.” Today I Found Out, November 28, 2012. https://www.todayifoundout.com/index.php/2011/06/pasta-is-not-originally-from-italy/.
This blog addresses common misconceptions about the evolution of pasta. In addition to swiftly discrediting the theory that pasta’s conception is a result of Marco Polo’s voyage, it discusses the belief that pasta is a result of trade and conquest by the Arabs. Furthermore, it also tells of pasta’s presence in early Jewish community by citing the Talmud, indicating a possible connection to Italian dumpling as the Jewish people entered Europe.
Kummer, Corby. “Pasta.” The Atlantic. Atlantic Media Company, July 1, 1986. https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1986/07/pasta/306226/.
This article provides a wealth of information on the origins of pasta. Its content elaborates on theories explored in other reports, providing information as a means of cross-reference and expansion. It also provides significant insight on the history and use of itriyah in the Middle East.
Weiser, Tami, and Tami Weiser. “The Delectable Dumpling Diaspora.” Moment Magazine – The Next 5,000 Years of Conversation Begin Here, August 14, 2019. https://momentmag.com/delectable-dumpling-diaspora/.
This article tells of myriad connections between European dumplings and their relationship to the Jewish diaspora. Specifically, it discusses the likelihood of the manti having influenced the kreplach and other dumplings popular in Jewish communities. This creates an additional reference for the dumplings development through the Middle East.
“Who Invented the Noodle, Italy or China?” Food, July 28, 2016. https://www.sbs.com.au/food/article/2016/07/29/who-invented-noodle-italy-or-china.
This report provides the perspectives of specific academics about the development of the pasta. By connecting the research of various scholars, this piece drafts a clear image of the origins of pasta. It shows that although Chinese noodles and dumplings might have impacted the development of European pasta, these influences should not be credited for the creation of items such as pasta and ravioli.
McWilliams, Mark. Wrapped & Stuffed Foods: Proceedings of the Oxford Symposium on Food and Cookery 2012. Totnes, Devon, England: Prospect Books, 2013.